All five perceiver obtained extremely specimens, especially those regarding close to this new hybrid area

All five perceiver obtained extremely specimens, especially those regarding close to this new hybrid area

Morphological contrasting

I scored mature sample skins maintained in the STRIBC (Letter =67), the fresh new Western Art gallery regarding Sheer Background (AMNH, Letter =25), while the United states National Art gallery bird collection (USNM, N = 10) out of Costa Rica, Panama, and you will Colombia for each out-of three phenotypic attributes: i) dorsal plumage, ii) ventral plumage, and you will iii) facial protect ornamentation. Pursuing the , MJM, Sel-, and up to three almost every other perceiver (look for Even more document step one: Desk S1) obtained for every bird independently to your a level out-of 0 – 1, where 0 illustrated a great phenotypically natural Jacana spinosa, and step one represented a great phenotypically sheer Jacana jacana (predicated on comparisons with peels out of away from contact region), and we also averaged new ratings per attribute as phenotypic crossbreed index for every sample . Specimens having phenotypic crossbreed indices below 0.ten was in fact categorized since the “pure” spinosa, when you find yourself a catalog from 0.ninety or even more are obtained given that “pure” jacana. A get ranging from 0.10 and you can 0.25 is actually classified since “spinosa-like”, while a catalog between 0.75 and you will 0.90 is actually categorized because the “jacana-like”. Specimens with indicator ranging from 0.25 and you may 0.75 was classified just like the “hybrids”.

Hereditary studies

We sequenced a good 652 ft couples fragment of one’s mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase We gene (COI: the DNA barcode fragment) away from 59 Panamanian jacanas, and additionally several specimens from east Honduras delivered to all of our studies of the J. Klicka and also the Marjorie Barrick Art gallery. I selected it gene to take benefit of existing succession studies on Genbank to possess jacanas from varied geographical nations, which were including added to the brand new dataset (N = 10). Research methods go after standard strategies that have been revealed someplace else . We tried however, were unable to produce succession investigation of toe mat extractions regarding Smith and you may Emlen series of specimens.

The latest COI analysis were utilized to help you guess the fresh genetic distinctiveness from both jacana kinds and you can infer the amount of time off speciation between J. spinosa and you can J. jacana, in order to gauge the degree to which geography restrictions gene flow during the jacanas (we.age. isolation-by-distance). We produced median-signing up for system nicaragua women during the PopART . We made use of Mega so you can calculate the common distance by using the HKY model of molecular progression so you can contrast divergence when you look at the jacanas to other avian species for which hereditary point might have been computed by using the HKY design .

We looked at for the effect of geographical point to the hereditary variations (i.e., isolation by the length) via a good Mantel attempt accompanied in the system Alleles in proportions , and this measures up hereditary and you may geographical distances among people as opposed to communities. Both for J. spinosa and you will J. jacana mtDNA series sets, i correlated uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence which have pairwise geographical range for all the you can easily pairs. Dependence on the new relationship try influenced by evaluating new seen correlation so you can arbitrary correlations based on ten,000 permutations.

So you can match the fresh new mtDNA-depending analyses off genetic introgression over the jacana hybrid zone, i sequenced several autosomal introns (gapdh eleven: , and 10551: ) for STRIBC specimens gathered around the Panama. According to a preliminary comparison off succession variation regarding several products off for each geographic endpoint (outside of the crossbreed area) in our testing build, i identified an individual nucleotide polymorphism for every single intron: gapdh step three- anti-experience standing 136 (cytosine-thymine: C-T change), and 10551 position 153 (adenine-guanine: A-G change). Ranking try in accordance with aligned sequences each and every intron towards the J. spinosa attempt MJM8238 (Genbank accessions: gapdh: KM891734, 10551: KM891735).

Cline figure analyses

We estimated the shape of the phenotypic and genotypic clines using ClineFit , which applies the cline fitting formulas developed by Szymura and Barton . The shape of a cline is determined by three formulas. The first formula (1) defines a symmetric S-shaped curve around the center of the hybrid zone, and relies on two parameters: c – for the center of the curve, and w – which is 1/maximum slope of the cline, and represents the cline width. Two additional formulae define the cline tails (2,3) and add four additional parameters: z L and z R , which represent the distance from c to a vertical asymptote for the exponential decay of allele frequencies to the left and right sides of the hybrid zone, while ? L and ? R define the rates of this exponential decay relative to the shape of the central cline (1).

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